The Spirit of peace in Isaiah

Isaiah’s prooimion (introduction) presents the problem. God’s people live in sin and needs to return to the Lord. A sick man illustrates the people’s spiritual sickness. The Lord has planned healing and will realise it. This will occur by God’s Spirit, particularly when God’s Spirit works through the Messiah. The first part of Isaiah (1-39) uses שָׁלוֹם for the first time in 9:5. The child of the king is born, a son of David. He is described by traits of character that correspond to God. The messianic king is the solution to the problem exposed in chapters 1-8. God’s Spirit is the judge of unfaithful Israel (4:4). Nevertheless, God’s plan is to use the Gentiles, who will become true worshippers of the Lord and will instruct then the people of Israel to return to the Lord (2:2-5). When the king is like God and reigns over the people in God’s kingdom in peace as a result of מִשְׁפָּ֖ט / צְדָקָ֑ה, the reflect of God’s character, only then can there be peace in the life of God’s people. 9:6 promises that this messianic kingdom will be an eternal kingdom of peace. The messianic king from the house of David will be guide and empowered by the Holy Spirit in order to reign in מִשְׁפָּ֖ט (11:2). The inhabitants of the kingdom are compared to peaceful animals by the transformation of the Spirit. Carnivores turn into herbivores. Little children can play with serpents without harm. Those that were violent before are peacemakers now. This is true for Jews and Gentiles. The wicked will be judged by the power of רוּחַ based on מִשְׁפָּ֖ט and are not allowed to live in the messianic Kingdom (11:4, 15; 17:13; 30:28). Isa 26:3 promises perfect שָׁלוֹם (reduplication of שָׁל֑וֹם ) to the one that places his trust in the Lord, the one who seeks the help from the Lord. Isa 26:12, in parallel to Hos 14:11[1] focuses on the final outcome.[2] After a time of judgment[3] follows a time of repentance and return to the Lord, this will lead to a transformation of the people into God’s righteous character. This will result in שָׁלוֹם.

27:5 Hope[4] is meronymous coextension to שָׁלוֹם (the language does not matter since a meronymous coextension is not a category of Einzelsprache (individual language), but a matter of ideas). Protection from the Lord exists only if a rebellious people stops making war at God, submits to God’s sovereignty and seeks protection in him.[5] God’s main goal of a peace relationship with people is clearly stated here. [6] God invites to this peace, but there is no peace if the human being does not respond out of free will.

30:1 establishes that the realiser of the alliance with God is the Spirit. Anynone who is opposed to the Spirit has no alliance with God but lives in sin and is under God’s judgement. Isa 32:17 establishes that צְּדָקָ֖ה results in שָׁלוֹם.[7] צְּדָקָ֖ה is therefore meronymous coextension. שְׁקֵ֥ט and בֶ֖טַח are synonymous coextensions. In 32:18 the stemנוּח is used as a synonymous coextension of שָׁלוֹם. שׁאן has the basic meaning of being undisturbed, confident. This makes with בֶ֖טַח and שְׁקֵ֥ט a total of five synonymous coextensions of שָׁלוֹם in Isa 32:17-18. In 32:15 the Holy Spirit realizes the promise of restoration and causes God’s people to bring fruit. This is illustrated by the country. The fruitful field was turned into the desert by God’s Spirit because God’s people did not bring fruit. When the people repent in the exile, stimulated by suffering, they will be restored to an intimate relationship with God by the Spirit and start to bring fruit again. As a blessing, the fields will bring forth fruit again. This is the background for Paul’s talk on the fruit of the Spirit in Gal 5. 31:3 sets the contrast between Spirit and flesh by giving the example of the Egyptians that are agitated by their flesh and rebellion against God. However, they cannot accomplish anything against God’s people and therefore should not be feared. The power of the Spirit is with God’s people for their protection. In 33:7 uses אראל, “valiant one,” as antonymous coextension of שָׁלוֹם. The messengers of peace sent by king Hezekiah to Sennacherib, king of Assyria[8] have failed[9] and therefore war will destroy the country. Sennacherib then violates his בְּרִית, bərîth with Judah[10] because Judah has violated their בְּרִית, bərîth with God. According to 34:16, the Spirit of the Lord gathers God’s people from the exile and from among the nations. That speaks about God’s messianic Kingdom where God’s people from the Jews and the Gentiles are gathered together by the power of רוּחַ.

According to 37:7 God’s Spirit is in control of history and raises enemies to Sennacherib,[11] who will return home[12] because God’s Spirit will stimulate Sennacherib’s human spirit to do so. He will be killed there. In 38:17 uses מר “bitterness” as antonymous coextension to חי חי “life” God’s deliverance based on grace leads to שָׁלוֹם. Sheol is an antonymous coextension to חי. If God does not save Hezekiah from his sickness, Hezekiah will enter sheol and not praise God.[13] Since he repents, God forgives him and heals him so that he can be whole again. The restoration into the peace relationship with God is illustrated by the healing leading to a life of שָׁלוֹם. The theme of sickness is dominant in Isaiah. The real problem is the spiritual sickness, which is sin, rebellion against God. God intends to heal that sickness.[14] This is illustrated by the healing of physical sickness in the life of Hezekiah. The ambiguity in the Hebrew text of Isa 53:5 regarding the spiritual (פֶּשַׁע-transgression/physical sickness ( חַבּוּרָה-wounds) that is healed (רפא) and leads to שָׁלוֹם, translated appropriately by ἰάομαι, which refers both to healing of physical and other sicknesses, is intentional because ultimately physical sickness is a phenomenon that has its origin in the spiritual sickness.

God’s purpose for Hezekiah is שָׁלוֹם [15] for the rest of his life and for eternity. Hezekiah is given as an example for what God has planned for all people. The condition to experience this is to trust in God’s supernatural intervention and an active walk in harmony with him. Though the Babylonians will come in the future and destroy the temple, God promises through the prophet Isaiah that in Hezekiah’s time there will be שָׁלוֹם.[16] This is due to the fact that Hezekiah walked with God (38:3)[17] in spite of his unwise decision to show all the treasures to the Babylonian delegation.[18] That his humility was greater than his pride becomes visible by that fact that Hezekiah repented immediately when the prophet rebuked him.[19]

The second part of Isaiah (40-56) begins with an appeal to repentance. God’s Spirit judges those who do not want to return to their Creator (40:7). However, the dominant tenor of Second Isaiah is the restoration of those who do want to find their peace with God. This restoration is realized by God’s Spirit. This is the Spirit’s sovereign plan and wisdom (40:13). In 41:3 God’s power[20] over pagan kings is displayed. God foresees, announces and realizes beyond all human expectancies.[21] Cyrus progresses so swift[22] in שָׁלוֹם because the Lord has organized his conquests.[23] According to 41:16 רוּחַ judges the enemies of God’s people whom he protects. According to 42:1 רוּחַ equips God’s servant Israel (41:8) and then in particular the perfect Servant from among Israel in order to proclaim God’s message of salvation. 44:3 repeats the promise of the restoration of God’s servant Jacob, Israel (44:1, 2) by the Spirit. Abundant Life, שָׁלוֹם, however, will be experienced only by those who return to the Lord. 45:7 displays in merisms God’s sovereignty and absolute control over everything that happens as opposed to Zoroastrianism of the Persians and Medes. [24] Nevertheless, this does not take away the human responsibility and the fact that God’s judgment is just. The ultimate purpose is שָׁלוֹם. But only those that put their trust in the Lord will experience it. רַע, ra˓, “evil” does not mean that God creates moral evil, [25] but that he is in control of it and allows it to happen if people decide to do evil. It is used as antonymous coextension to שָׁלוֹם. When there is no שָׁלוֹם, there is רַע, ra˓. God uses war, natural catastrophes and suffering to bring people back to him. Isaiah explores the theme of captivity in order to show the people that they need to draw close to God if they wanted to be delivered from the oppression of foreign nations. Only God can be their refuge, security, protection, in brief: שָׁלוֹם. Prophecy and fulfilment are signs from God that demonstrate God’s sovereignty[26] and absolute control[27] over all the nations[28] that he uses in favour of those that walk with him and as educative measure for those who do not.

48:18 establishes again a strong link between שָׁלוֹם and righteousness.[29] This is because God’s people refuse to be righteous resulting in lack of שָׁלוֹם. If they decided to follow God’s righteousness by the power of the Spirit (48:16), they could also experience peace. שָׁלוֹם is compared to a river of living water, a metaphor for life, fruit, the Spirit, unlike a wadi. [30] The completeness of the well-being is communicated, a well-being that is “Godward, manward, selfward (9:6; 26:3, 12; 32:17).”[31]. The way to that שָׁלוֹם is צדקה by God’s power (Ps. 42:7; 65:7; 107:25).[32] God, trying to teach the unteachable, cries out in pain[33] because he offers שָׁלוֹם [34] and people reject. Only God’s Spirit can transform their hearts. 48:22[35] The wicked does not know שָׁלוֹם [36] because he lives in rebellion against God[37] and is in a war state with God, he lives in tohu. [38] Only God is true שָׁלוֹם and only in an intimated relationship with him can we experience true שָׁלוֹם. Man cannot create his own שָׁלוֹם apart from God because this is not how God has designed his universe. The member of God’s people that does not live with God is called a wicked and has no hope of the experience of the fulfilment of God’s promises in his life.[39]

52:7[40] The deliverance of Jerusalem in the historical circumstances is a principle of the deliverance of the people of God by the power of the Holy Spirit working through the Messiah.[41] The return of the people from the Babylonian captivity[42] is a based on the principle of the restoration of the peace relationship between God and his people by the Spirit. The faithful remnant experiences the fulfilment of this prophecy.[43] Isaiah’s fourth Servant song establishes in 53:5 that the violent death[44] and God’s curse[45] that the Messiah Servant suffered was the means chosen by God so that the faithful remnant from Israel[46] and the nations[47] could be reconciled with God[48] and experience שָׁלוֹם.

54:10 “covenant of my peace” (בְּרִית שְׁלֹוֹמִי) [49] links the marriage contract[50] and the covenant with Noah. [51] Jerusalem, God’s unfaithful wife[52] is invited to return to God in order to experience שָׁלוֹם.

54:13[53] God’s people have hope and can trust God for the future because God has planned שָׁלוֹם for his people,[54] a heavenly Jerusalem.[55] Though God’s people abandoned God, God has never abandoned his people. He has not given them a letter of divorce.[56] 55:12 שִׂמְחָה (joy) is meronymous coextension of שָׁלוֹם. God’s people need to recognize that they are created in God’s image[57] in order to reflect that image. Only if they do, there is happiness and peace. God’s people can then be God’s witness without guilt and fear. [58] This is the answer to the barren, thirsty and hungry of the song of Hannah in Isa 54:1-6.[59]

57:2 The social analysis[60] shows the picture of an unjust society where the righteous perishes. However, he will rejoice in peace in God’s presence while the unjust will perish and have not שָׁלוֹם. מִשְׁכָּב dwelling place or bed is interpreted in the LXX by ἡ ταφὴ αὐτοῦ (sepulture)[61] due to the context of the righteous being killed but finding שָׁלוֹם. God’s judgement did not come during the time of Hezekiah[62] because of Hezekiah’s faithfulness. After his death it came. 57:19 Isaiah presents the children of Zion as offspring from an adulterer (57:3). The people are judged by God’s Spirit because of idol worship (57:13). Jerusalem is therefore a harlot (57:7-10).[63] רפא in 57:19 is again used as God’s solution to the problem of sin. There is שָׁלוֹם [64] only for those that are humble themselves before God (57:15), are reconciled with God and then live in a harmonious relationship with him. This is valid for those that are far and those that are close, those Israelites in the exile and those at home. But it also includes the Gentiles.[65] Healing is carried out by the Messiah, who lives fully by the Spirit. Only those that are humble can experience this.[66] They will be in joy and praise God.[67] 59:8 שָׁלוֹם is again linked to צְדָקָ֑ה. This refers to the life of the people. Those that live in constant strives, those that persist in evil doing have no peace.[68] They Will experience God’s jugement when רוּחַ brings the Assyrians[69] to Israel with an army as huge as a river to flood the country. Positively, רוּחַ on God’s people is the new covenant (59:21).

60:17 Spiritual darkness[70] will be transformed in light for both Jews and Gentiles.[71] Sadness will be transformed in joy.[72] This will be realised by the Messiah who preaches the good news of salvation , heals the sick, liberates the captives. In Isaiah’s context the captives is a reference to Israel in captivity and salvation to salvation from bondage in captivity. Nevertheless, Isaiah spiritualises suffering in the physical world because the physical circumstances are a consequence of the sin of God’s people. When they return to the Lord via the Messiah, they will be healed from the sickness of sin, but this salvation and liberation will also we visible in the physical world. This how Isa 61 is used in the New Testament where Jesus saves the sinner, but also heals the physically sicke and liberates those that are captives of the devil in the sense of demon possession. Jesus accomplishes his earthly ministry by the power of the Spirit. His sermon in the synagogue in Nazareth in Luke 4:14-22 at the beginning of Jesus’ earthly ministry quotes from Isa 61. Isaiah recalls the people’s rebellion against God’s Holy Spirit (63:10). Then he recalls that the Holy Spirit had given them victory at the time of Moses (63:11). He also gave them rest and peace (63:14). If they return to the Lord, the Holy Spirit will act again just as at the time of Moses. He will give them victory over their enemies. But they must return to the Lord and be reconciled again. They must stop their rebellion against the Holy Spirit otherwise he continues to be their judge (64:5).

66:12 is the apogee of the epilogos (conclusion).[73] After the judgement Isaiah announces final glory and salvation.[74] This is the fulfilment of שָׁלוֹם experienced by transformed[75] faithful Jews and Gentiles, the new heavenly Sion and Jerusalem, [76] living in the Messianic Kingdom. God’s righteousness separates the righteous from the unrighteous.[77] The promise if for the humble and contrite in spirit in 66:2 (cf. Mat 5). רוּחַ is used both theologically and anthropologically. It is by God’s Spirit that the humble can be humble. But he or she needs to allow the Spirit to transform the heart.

Isaiah’s message presents God’s plan of שָׁלוֹם. The people live in sin and do not know God’s שָׁלוֹם, but only suffering and oppression. God’s Spirit is explained to be the realiser of God’s promise of salvation, restoration and fulfilment of שָׁלוֹם. A particular role is granted to the Messiah as the true and perfect Servant, which Israel is intended but fails to be. When the Messiah comes, the people will turn to him, will be transformed and will serve God as his servant. This is accomplished by the power of רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי.

[1] Geoffrey W. Grogan, “Isaiah,” in The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, ed. Frank E. Gaebelein, vol. 6 (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986), 164. [2] John N. Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah, Chapters 1–39, The New International Commentary on the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986), 480–481. [3] John D. W. Watts, Isaiah 1–33, vol. 24, Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2005), 400; John Peter Lange et al., A Commentary on the Holy Scriptures: Isaiah (Bellingham: Logos Bible Software, 2008), 288. [4] Edward Young, The Book of Isaiah, Chapters 19–39, vol. 2 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1969), 240–241. [5] Is 45:24; Ro 5:1; Eph 2:14; Job 22:21; Watts, 410; Robert Jamieson, A. R. Fausset, and David Brown, Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible, vol. 1 (Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, 1997), 459. [6] John Calvin, Isaiah, Crossway Classic Commentaries (Wheaton: Crossway, 2000), 177. [7] 59:8–9; Oswalt, 588. [8] Charles Simeon, Horae Homileticae: Isaiah, XXVII–LXVI, vol. 8 (London: Holdsworth and Ball, 1832), 54–55. [9] 2 Ki 18:14, 18, 37; Watts, 494; Jamieson, 466; Calvin, 202. [10] Terry R. Briley, Isaiah, The College Press NIV Commentary (Joplin: College Press, 2000), 57. [11] John Calvin, Isaiah, Crossway Classic Commentaries (Wheaton: Crossway, 2000), 222. [12] John F. Walvoord et Roy B. Zuck, El conocimiento bíblico, un comentario expositivo: Antiguo Testamento, tomo 5: Isaías-Ezequiel (Puebla: Ediciones Las Américas, 2000), 83. [13] Ps. 88:11–13; 30:10; Eccl. 9:5, 6; Job 14:10; Ps. 115:17; Lange, 404. [14] 6:10; 19:22; and 30:26, cf. Exod. 15:26; Allan Harman, Isaiah: A Covenant to Be Kept for the Sake of the Church, Focus on the Bible Commentary (Scotland: Christian Focus, 2005), 365. [15] Carl Friedrich Keil and Franz Delitzsch, Commentary on the Old Testament, vol. 7 (Peabody: Hendrickson, 1996), 378. [16] John A. Martin, “Isaiah,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton: Victor, 1985), 1090–1091. [17] James Luther Mays, ed., Harper’s Bible Commentary (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1988), 570. [18] Robert B. Chisholm, “The Major Prophets,” in Holman Concise Bible Commentary, ed. David S. Dockery (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1998), 281. [19] Calvin, 239. [20] Lange, 436. [21] John L. McKenzie, Second Isaiah: Introduction, Translation, and Notes, vol. 20, Anchor Yale Bible (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008), 27. [22] Dan 8:5; Geoffrey W. Grogan, “Isaiah,” in The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, ed. Frank E. Gaebelein, vol. 6 (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986), 252. [23] John N. Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah, Chapters 40–66, The New International Commentary on the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998), 82–83. [24] H. D. M. Spence-Jones, ed., Isaiah, vol. 2, The Pulpit Commentary (London: Funk & Wagnalls, 1910), 174. [25] Ps 65:7; Am 3:6; Jamieson, 482. [26] Terry R. Briley, Isaiah, The College Press NIV Commentary (Joplin: College Press, 2000), 161–162. [27] Edward Young, The Book of Isaiah, Chapters 40–66, vol. 3 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1972), 199–200. [28] Klaus Baltzer, Deutero-Isaiah: A Commentary on Isaiah 40–55, ed. Peter Machinist, Hermeneia—a Critical and Historical Commentary on the Bible (Minneapolis: Fortress, 2001), 226. [29] John D. Barry et al., Faithlife Study Bible (Bellingham: Lexham, 2016), Isa 48:22. [30] George Angus Fulton Knight, Servant Theology: A Commentary on the Book of Isaiah 40–55, Rev. and updated new ed., International Theological Commentary (Edinburgh: Eerdmans, 1984), 122. [31] J. Alec Motyer, Isaiah: An Introduction and Commentary, vol. 20, Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries (Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1999), 344–345. [32] Ibid. [33] Gen 3:9, Deut 5:28–29; Ps 81:13–14; Hos 11:8; Luke 13:34–35; Geoffrey W. Grogan, “Isaiah,” in The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, ed. Frank E. Gaebelein, vol. 6 (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986), 281. [34] John D. W. Watts, Isaiah 34–66, vol. 25, Revised Edition., Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2005), 724. [35] Repeated in 57:21 verbatim as conclusion to the second book of Isaiah; H. C. Leupold, Exposition of Isaiah, vol. 2 (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1971), 172; John A. Martin, “Isaiah,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton: Victor, 1985), 1103. [36] H. C. Leupold, Exposition of Isaiah, vol. 2 (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1971), 172. [37] 66:24; Terry R. Briley, Isaiah, The College Press NIV Commentary (Joplin: College Press, 2000), 183. [38] George Angus Fulton Knight, Servant Theology: A Commentary on the Book of Isaiah 40–55, Rev. and updated new ed., International Theological Commentary (Edinburgh: Eerdmans, 1984), 124. [39] Calvin, 297. [40] Nah 1:15; Rom 10:15; George Leo Haydock, Haydock’s Catholic Bible Commentary (New York: Edward Dunigan and Brother, 1859), Is 52:7. [41] Spence-Jones, 279. [42] 40:9; 41:27; Warren W. Wiersbe, Be Comforted, “Be” Commentary Series (Wheaton: Victor, 1996), 130. [43] J. N. Darby, Synopsis of the Books of the Bible: Ezra to Malachi (Bellingham: Logos Bible Software, 2008), 345–346. [44] Isa 51:9; Job 26:13; Zech 12:10; Edward Young, The Book of Isaiah, Chapters 40–66, vol. 3 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1972), 347; Matt. 8:17; Luke 22:37; John 12:37–38; Acts 8:26–35; Rom. 4:25; 10:15–16; 15:21; 1 Pet. 1:2; 2:24–25; H. L. Willmington, Willmington’s Bible Handbook (Wheaton: Tyndale, 1997), 372; Larry Pechawer, Poetry and ophecy, vol. 3, Standard Reference Library: Old Testament (Cincinnati: Standard Publishing, 2008), 154. [45] Willem A. VanGemeren, “Isaiah,” in Evangelical Commentary on the Bible, vol. 3, Baker reference library (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1995), 507–508. [46] Daniel Carro et al., Comentario Bı́blico Mundo Hispano Isaias, 1. ed. (El Paso: Editorial Mundo Hispano, 1993), 222–223. [47] 49:1–7; 42:1–13; Gary V. Smith, The Prophets as Preachers: An Introduction to the Hebrew Prophets (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1994), 146–147; Robert B. Hughes and J. Carl Laney, Tyndale Concise Bible Commentary, The Tyndale reference library (Wheaton: Tyndale, 2001), 267; Willem A. VanGemeren, “Isaiah,” in Evangelical Commentary on the Bible, vol. 3, Baker reference library (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1995), 508.. [48] Gordon D. Fee and Robert L. Hubbard Jr., eds., The Eerdmans Companion to the Bible (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2011), 397. [49] Larry Richards and Lawrence O. Richards, The Teacher’s Commentary (Wheaton: Victor, 1987), 389. [50] Ezek 16:8; Mal 2:14; Prov 2:17; Damascus Document, CD 16.10–12. W. Zimmerli, Ezekiel 1 (1979) 342 [Ezechiel (3d ed. 1979) 331]. [51] Klaus Baltzer, Deutero-Isaiah: A Commentary on Isaiah 40–55, ed. Peter Machinist, Hermeneia—a Critical and Historical Commentary on the Bible (Minneapolis: Fortress, 2001), 446; Rick Brannan and Israel Loken, The Lexham Textual Notes on the Bible, Lexham Bible Reference Series (Bellingham: Lexham, 2014), Is 54:9–56:5. [52] W. Zimmerli, Ezekiel 1 (1979) 342 [Ezechiel (3d ed. 1979) 331]. [53] An echo of Jer 31:33–34; John L. McKenzie, Second Isaiah: Introduction, Translation, and Notes, vol. 20, Anchor Yale Bible (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008), 139. [54] Roberto Lloyd, Estudios Bı́blicos ELA: ¡Tu Dios Reina! (Isaı́as Y Miqueas) (Puebla: Ediciones Las Américas, 1995), 91. [55] Rev 21:18–21; Einführungen Und Erklärungen Aus Der Stuttgarter Erklärungsbibel. Neuausgabe Mit Apokryphen. (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2005), Isa 54:11–17. [56] Carro, 226–227. [57] Ray Comfort, The Evidence Bible: Irrefutable Evidence for the Thinking Mind, Notes, ed. Kirk Cameron, The Way of the Master Evidence Bible (Orlando: Bridge-Logos, 2003), 916–917. [58] Edward Young, The Book of Isaiah, Chapters 40–66, vol. 3 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1972), 384–385. [59] Paul D. Hanson, Isaiah 40–66, Interpretation, a Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching (Louisville: John Knox, 1995), 177. [60] Ivan D. Friesen, Isaiah, Believers Church Bible Commentary (Scottdale: Herald Press, 2009), 353–354. [61] Albert Barnes, Notes on the Old Testament: Isaiah, vol. 2 (London: Blackie & Son, 1851), 315. [62] 2 Chr. 32:26; Andrew Thomson, Opening Up Isaiah, Opening Up Commentary (Leominster: Day One, 2012), 141. [63] Margaret Barker, “Isaiah,” in Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible, ed. James D. G. Dunn and John W. Rogerson (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003), 537. [64] 9:6, 7; 26:3, 12; 27:5; 32:17, 18; 48:18; 52:7; 53:5, 54:10, 13; 55:12; 57:2; Allan Harman, Isaiah: A Covenant to Be Kept for the Sake of the Church, Focus on the Bible Commentary (Scotland: Christian Focus Publications, 2005), 384. [65] Acts 10:34–36; Eph. 2:13, 17. [66] Isa 66:2; Walvoord and Zuck, El Conocimiento Bíblico,115. [67] Albert Barnes, Notes on the Old Testament: Isaiah, vol. 2 (London: Blackie & Son, 1851), 325. [68] Prov. 1:16; Rom. 3:15–17; John Wesley, Explanatory Notes upon the Old Testament, vol. 3 (Bristol: William Pine, 1765), 2105; Henry Cowles, Isaiah; With Notes, Critical, Explanatory and Practical (New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1869), 480; J. Skinner, The Book of the Prophet Isaiah, Chapters XL.–LXVI. With Introduction and Notes, The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1898), 171; Andrew Thomson, Opening Up Isaiah, Opening Up Commentary (Leominster: Day One, 2012), 143–144.. [69] Isa 8:7–8; 59:19; John L. McKenzie, Second Isaiah: Introduction, Translation, and Notes, vol. 20, Anchor Yale Bible (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008), 171. [70] Carro, 118–119. [71] Keith Brooks, Summarized Bible: Complete Summary of the Old Testament (Bellingham: Logos Bible Software, 2009), 166. [72] Ross E. Price, « El Libro del Profeta Isaías », in Comentario Bíblico Beacon: Los Profetas Mayores (Tomo 4) (Lenexa: Casa Nazarena, 2010), 259–260; Kenneth E. Jones, « The Book of Isaiah », in Isaiah-Malachi, vol. 3, The Wesleyan Bible Commentary (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1969), 151. [73] Jones, 160. [74] Gary V. Smith, The Prophets as Preachers: An Introduction to the Hebrew Prophets (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman, 1994), 149. [75] Lloyd, 125. [76] John A. Braun, Isaías 40–66, La Biblia Popular (Milwaukee: Northwestern, 2003), 383–384. [77] Paul R. House, Old Testament theology (Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1998), 294.

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